Bankarization in the first European cities with an equal number of Muslim and Christian inhabitants Melilla and Ceuta
Miguel Ángel Pérez-Castro Department of Applied Economy, Universidad de Granada, Melilla, Spain Miguel Ángel Montero-Alonso Department of Statistics and Operational Research, University of Granada, Melilla, Spain, and Akram Abderrahman-Azaar Applied Economics, Universidad de Granada, Melilla, Spain
Abstract Purpose – This paper aims to analyze the situation of the financial system in the Spanish-governed cities of Melilla and Ceuta, Christian and Muslim cities located on the north coast of Africa, and compared it with the mean bankarization level in the rest of Spain in 2000-2015.
Design/methodology/approach – Although different calculation methods have been proposed, most authors agree that the bankarization level of a country or a territory reflects the development of the society as a whole and has a positive correlation with economic growth. The indicators of financial depth proposed by these researchers are not only the ratio between variables such as loans, deposits, etc., but also the ratios of these variables to the population and the gross domestic product (GDP) of the country or territory.
Findings – The results obtained revealed that there are differences between these two North African Spanish cities. Furthermore, the financing gap between the mean bankarization levels of these cities and those of mainland Spain was found to be even larger than most of the other economic indicators (GDP per capita and the unemployment rate).
Practical implications – The authors are convinced that the manuscript is a contribution of great interest for serving pilot experience in cities wishing to offer a development of traditional banking and Islamic banking. The paper should be of interest to readers in the areas of finance systems and commercial banks where two different cultures coexist.
Originality/value – This is the first research study on the financial framework of European cities whose populations have an approximately equal percentage of Christians and Muslims. The data reflected the existence of savings and loan methods parallel to conventional banking. The conclusion was that in the near future, it would be advisable for European banks to take into account the cultural customs and religious practices of potential Muslim clients.
Keywords Bankarization, Banking analysis, Islamic bank financing, Melilla and Ceuta, Spanish autonomous cities Paper type Research Paper This research was carried out within the framework of Program 20 of the Plan Propio de Investigación 2012 [Research Action Plan 2012] of the University of Granada for the Faculty of Social Sciences in Melilla.